plate 62, has an instrument bearing the caption 'pantaleon', implying either
that the instrument was an 18th century survival, or that if it is an instrument
currently played, that its local or generic name is pantaleon; none of these
seem feasible; it does not fit the contemporary descriptions of pantaleons
(gut strings, double soundboards, great length, some 200 strings etc.) nor,
as far as I am aware, does anyone today play an instrument which he calls
by that name.
The only other
possibility, then is that some kind of generic term is intended: this is not
made clear in the text, which paradoxically uses the term fretted instruments
to include dulcimer, cimbalom, psaltery, qanun, santur, cheng, koto.
yang chin and "various dulcimers from the Appalachians to Ireland"
(these last implying that there are some Atlantean specimens which I have
missed ...) However, the deepest mystery of all is that the same instrument
as is labelled 'pantaleon in plate 62 is photographed from a slightly different
angle at plate 66, and there labelled "the best-known form of dulcimer".
Such confusion of names and types warrants, I think, the classification of
this example as a misconception, not a controversy.
In this connection
it may be added that Marcuse writes of the pantaleon, that "it has been
known as such ever since"(2); this suggests to me that the name has been
used by players of the instrument ever since, while, so far as I know, it
has not been played since the 18th century. Another possible interpretation
is that she is merely pointing out that scholars have since distinguished
between the pantaleon and other dulcimers; the statement seems either disputable