depends of course, on the definitions of both 'mediaeval' and 'dulcimer'.
Norlind was one who wrote in such a way (1930) and in Scandinavia (where
influences from the volatile South seem always to have been slow to
make an impact: remember that Arrebo's work is considered to mark the
breakthrough of Renaissance poetry in Denmark, dating from the early
1600s when Italy, whence it originated, was already busy with the Baroque);
in Scandinavia the Middle Ages are considered to have lasted until the
Reformation, 1526-27 (16), and in England chivalric ideals were still
being expressed by Hawes in 1509. Nevertheless, the mediaeval period
in music is generally considered to end at about 1400, just before the
Burgundians, Dufay and Dunstable, or sometimes half-a-century later,
as those composers gave place to Netherlanders like Ockeghem and Obrecht
the isolated Byzantine
example mentioned in Chapter 3.2. - neither date nor provenance
of which is certain - and possibly the Calmar carving, positive evidence
of dulcimers dates from the 1440s, by which time the Renaissance was
certainly under way, so that they may scarcely be considered characteristically
mediæval; and it may be said that no form of dulcimer was established
or current during the mediaeval period defined by music historians.
a statement, of course, begs the question of what a dulcimer is, and
we need to look now at those icons and literary references - since only
these, and no surviving instruments, have been quoted in support of
an ancient history for the dulcimer.