CHAPTER 3: History to 1800

3.5 The Baroque, Rococo and Classical Periods 1600-1800

3.5.1 The west

1.1. Popular cultures in the 17th & 18th centuries:

2. Germania

Detailed evidence: 5 of 6: instruments


fig.71: Graubünden Hackbrett 1776 (Geiser)


The last detailed example comes from a little later, 1776, but is remarkable because it appears to be almost a surviving form of the Hackbrett portrayed in Virdung's engraving: the overall shape and proportions are very similar, and it has a simple single bridge. Moreover, it has the newer feature of quadruple strings, with the older side-mounting of the tuning-pins, rare after 1600 (fig. 71).

[2008] Other instruments have come to the fore since this study was carried out in 1976, for example these two at

fig.71b & c: Hackbretts from the 1790s at